Person putting on free weight plates on a free weight bar

According to a study titled Examining the Effect of Ineffective Parenting and Low Self-Control on Athletes’ PED Use. Authors S. Kabiri and C. Donner found that low self-control capacity and self-control desire had significant effects on PED use by athletes.

As PEDs are continuously used by athletes on all levels, finding out the reasons for its use and perhaps stop some of the negative consequences it can have for individuals, teams, and families is a constant pursuit. From researchers at Loyola University Chicago, two reasons for that were reported to be that low self-control capacity and self-control desire had significant effects on athletes’ PED use.


A more noteworthy finding was that ineffective parenting also played a significant role in Athletes’ use of banned performance-enhancing drugs. This aspect of the problem, may not raise any eyebrows. Rather, it most certainly gives fuel to the debate of how much and what type of adult interference is required in young people’s lives.


“the main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between effective parenting, self-control, and athletes’ use of banned PEDs”


Kabiri, Saeed & Donner, Christopher

Photo by Victor Freitas on Unsplash

Kabiri, Saeed & Donner, Christopher. (2019). Examining the Effect of Ineffective Parenting and Low Self-Control on Athletes’ PED Use. International Criminal Justice Review. 105756771983235. 10.1177/1057567719832354.